• Merchants of Doubt

  • How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming
  • By: Erik M. Conway, Naomi Oreskes
  • Narrated by: Peter Johnson
  • Length: 13 hrs and 13 mins
  • Unabridged Audiobook
  • Release date: 16-11-10
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: Audible Studios
  • 4.5 out of 5 stars 4.4 (31 ratings)


The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. Our scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers.
Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. Remarkably, the same individuals surface repeatedly some of the same figures who have claimed that the science of global warming is "not settled" denied the truth of studies linking smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. "Doubt is our product," wrote one tobacco executive. These "experts" supplied it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how ideology and corporate interests, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era.
©2010 Naomi Oreskes/Erik M. Conway (P)2010 Audible, Inc
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Critic reviews

“Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway have demonstrated what many of us have long suspected: that the ‘debate’ over the climate crisis--and many other environmental issues--was manufactured by the same people who brought you ‘safe’ cigarettes. Anyone concerned about the state of democracy in America should read this book.” (Former Vice President Al Gore)
“Brilliantly reported and written with brutal clarity… The real shocker of this book is that it takes us, in just 274 brisk pages, through seven scientific issues that called for decisive government regulation and didn't get it, sometimes for decades, because a few scientists sprinkled doubt-dust in the offices of regulators, politicians and journalists….Oreskes and Conway do a great public service.” ( Huffington Post)
Merchants of Doubt might be one of the most important books of the year. Exhaustively researched and documented, it explains how over the past several decades mercenary scientists have partnered with tobacco companies and chemical corporations to help them convince the public that their products are safe – even when solid science proves otherwise… Merchants of Doubt is a hefty read, well-researched and comprehensive…I hope it sells, because what it has to say needs to be heard.” ( Christian Science Monitor)
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Customer Reviews

Most Helpful
5 out of 5 stars
By Reg on 06-04-17

a book that should be read by everyone!

this is one of those books that can help you develop a more critical mind and also see how even best science can be muddled. very worth reading/listening to!

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Customer Reviews

Most Helpful
4 out of 5 stars
By Roger on 23-01-11

Valuable scholarship, but not exactly literature

The "Merchants of Doubt" of the title were a few scientists who had been productive researchers during the cold war. The book tells the story of how, in their later years, they used their accrued clout and credibility to attack and undermine important scientific discoveries involving tobacco, acid rain, ozone depletion, and especially, climate change. Their motives were both ideological (they considered environmental science a threat to the free market that they venerated) and mercenary (they were on the take from industry groups and conservative foundations).

It's a really impressive piece or research and reporting, and it's easy to admire. But to actually enjoy it, you'd have to have to be willing to get into the weeds. The authors build their case like prosecutors, brick by brick, and they ask the reader to examine each brick up close. Do you want to read about how one of the authors of an IPCC report wrote a chapter with summaries at the beginning and end of the chapter; how he was instructed to have only one summary to make it consistent with the other chapters; and how, after doing this, he was attacked for "removing material?" Do you want to read about how that report was falsely maligned as containing sensationalistic language, when in fact the authors agonized over whether to describe the human effect on observed climate change as "appreciable" or merely "discernible?" If that's what you like, this book is for you. Some people might find it a little dry.

Overall I'm glad I listened to this. It's depressingly common to hear people debate what ought to be a science question by ranting on about socialism, the UN and the enemies of freedom. When you hear that kind of talk, if you've listened to this book, you will know where it comes from, who put it out, and who paid for it-- and it will be easy to envision the ghost of Fred Singer (one of the principal villains), wherever he is, smiling a little.

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27 of 30 people found this review helpful

5 out of 5 stars
By serine on 14-02-16

Put this at the top of your reading list

Exceptional. Put this book at the very top of your reading list. The authors provide a clear, stunning, and engaging history of how a handful of scientists were able to keep doubt alive during every occasion in which scientific evidence threatened to cut into a corporation's profit or a politician's proposed policy. These merchants of doubt were on the wrong side of history on every occasion. They didn't carry out their own scientific work. Rather they attacked the work of others as they attempted to convince the public that smoking does not kill, pollution does not cause acid rain, our seas are not rising, our glaciers are not melting because of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by our fossil fuels, and DDT is good for the humans and the environment.

This book gives a detailed account of the evidence for each of the above claims (i.e.., smoking kills), and a detailed account of how "scientists," who were paid by the politicians and corporations in questions, twisted the data and even falsified documentation in order to stop the public from synthesizing the true scientific evidence into their knowledge base. Their tactic was always to confuse and keep the doubt alive. Some scientists for hire were extremely good at taking a Machiavellian approach to their jobs. This is why it appears as if there is a debate over global warming, when indeed there is not.

Drawing a line through the arguments of the past and the arguments now, and demonstrating a specific pattern used by a handful of scientists, provided a strong and clear understanding of how false information was able to remain a viable option for society for so long. The authors have put all the science in one place, as well as the way that science was twisted and misused, so that anyone reading this book will finally understand exactly what scientists have said about tobacco use, pollution, global warming, etc. This book, so thoroughly researched, is poised to become the definitive source on how to prepare for debates about climate change and other important issues. I can imagine people saying, "Have you read Merchants of Doubt? If not, you are not qualified to have this discussion. We can revisit after you are up to speed."

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3 of 3 people found this review helpful

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